The U.S. has a presidential government system with separate elections of presidents and legislature. Article 1 of the U.S. Constitution states that any U.S. presidential elections should be held in one day. Every four years concurrently, legislative and presidential elections take place, and temporary parliamentary elections are to be called mid-term polls every two years.
Conditions for Taking Part in Federal Elections
Senators must be minimum thirty years, a resident of the U.S., and a (legal) inhabitant of the state they are representing, at least nine years old. Regulating the credentials for a candidate appearing on a ballot paper is the responsibility of state legislatures. A candidate often has to gather a legally defined number of signatures to get on the ballot.
Elections to the Presidency
In a presidential election, the President and the Vice President are jointly elected. It is an indirect election, with voters of the Electoral College casting the winner. The nominee with at least 270 votes from the Electoral College is the winner of the election. Voting at the Electoral College is cast by a group of electors from each nation, and each voter emits one polling station.
58 quadrennial presidential elections have been held and 59th is going to held on November 3, 2020. Presidential electors will elect the president and vice-president in December 2020.
One-third of the Senate is elected every two years for the six-year term in two-seat electoral districts (2 each state). Senate seats that are elected for a given year are referred to as a ‘ class; ‘ the three classes are phased to allow only one of the three groups to be replaced every two years. 100 senators, 2 from each state get into the senate to represent their district or state. They are being elected under the seventeenth amendment of the United States constitution and each senator holds one vote. Each senator is being selected for six years.
House of Representatives Elections
Four hundred thirty-five representatives are elected in single-seat districts by the House of Representatives in a two-year term. It is also known as the lower house of Congress. Special parliamentary elections take place in case of deaths or resignations of a member in one term.
Controlled by state legislatures, State legislation and constitutional law regulate elections at a national and local level. Many officials are elected at the state level. Since power division extends both to states and the federal government, state legislatures and the governor are independently elected. In some states, governors and lieutenant governors are elected by joint ticket and in some states separately. Elections are made for all representatives of State legislatures, the Attorney General and Secretary of State. The State Supreme Court and other state judges are elected in some states, and proposals to amend the constitution of the country are also put on the ballot.
At the local level, elections are usually held at the county and city governments, particularly within the legislative branch. Many examples of local electors are county sheriffs and mayors and city-level members of the school board.